Thursday, August 27, 2020

Positivity in Your Job Search Will Get You Farther Than You Think

Inspiration in Your Job Search Will Get You Farther Than You Think Maybe you’ll relate to me when I state I can’t stand hearing anybody whine aside from myself. All things considered, even my resilience for my own grumblings has dove over the most recent couple of years. When I begin griping in a discussion, I know I’ve committed a major error. I leave the collaboration feeling loathsome, sure the individual I was conversing with will never need to converse with me again. A week ago, while perusing AJ Jacobs’ The Guinea Pig Diaries, I gained some new useful knowledge about the effect of my whining or censuring. I was stunned to find a wonder that makes individuals truly and really consider ineffectively me when I tear down others. You Are What You Speak Notably, not exclusively are grumblers seen as negative, however that the qualities they ascribe to others are naturally credited to them by their audience. So on the off chance that I call somebody supremacist, the individual tuning in to me will unwittingly name me a bigot. In the event that I call somebody inept or awkward, I will be viewed as dumb and clumsy. Interestingly, in the event that I talk about how pleasant, accommodating, skilled, and all-around wonderful individuals are, audience members will connect every one of those positive attributes with me. Since finding out about this brain component, I’ve become substantially more aware of my discourse. I currently comprehend that by utilizing antagonistic language, I’m gambling not just that individuals will have a by and large negative inclination about me, yet in addition that they will make explicit negative decisions that I surely don’t need joined to me. By utilizing increasingly constructive words, I can deliberately shape the manner in which individuals consider me. I as of late had a discussion with one of my official customers, who had been given nothing useful to work with, at that point dismissed by another resume composing organization, since they don’t work with â€Å"Muslim terrorists.† I can guarantee you this man is one of the most liberal and kind individuals you could ever need to meet. He didn't have anything negative to state about that organization, and he decided not to report them to the BBB or even advise LinkedIn to explore their profiles. He figured he could remain positive, and let them burrow their own graves. In the event that they are putting out that pessimism into the world, they themselves will be viewed as negative. Positive Language in Your Job Search Likewise a week ago, I saw a resume that discussed uniting frequently â€Å"fractious† staff. The word â€Å"fractious† showed up twice in one resume! Think about what anybody perusing that resume will think about the candidate? Yep†¦ that he himself is the irritable one. His last resume wo exclude that word in the event that I have anything to state about it. Rather, he will say that he encouraged collaboration in a differing, multi-social condition. That sounds much better doesn’t it? While it’s significant by and large to give a â€Å"before and after† picture to feature your achievements, putting individuals down will never serve you. You can discuss carrying adverse benefits to constructive ones, yet don’t let the pessimistic descriptive words overflow onto people. (Learn progressively about making convincing achievement slugs with my DIY continue books. Join here to get a free selection!) In prospective employee meet-ups also, I can’t underline enough the significance of remaining positive. I despite everything recollect a meeting I gave when I was a chief in a lawful office. The interviewee had an amazing foundation, however in her meeting, pretty much every word out of her mouth was about the negative parts of her earlier work. Obviously, she didn’t get employed. On the off chance that she had been increasingly positive, we would have thought about her. In Business Insider’s 29 Words You Should Never Say in a Job Interview, here’s what creator Jacquelyn Smith says about some obviously harming words you should dodge: Horrendous, terrible, dreadful, despise, and so on. You shouldnt utilize negative language during your meeting - particularly when youre discussing your current or past chief or boss. Regardless of whether the questioner welcomes you to,â dont, Hoover says. Its not tasteful, and itâ will make you sound unpleasant and trivial. It additionally shows that you could castigate any chief or organization later on - and it could even be a test to check whether you will say anything decrying. That’s incredible guidance, and now I get that on the off chance that you use words like these, you will really be seen as awful, appalling, terrible, abhorring individual. While Ms. Smith doesnt propose positive words to underscore, I would offer â€Å"exciting,† â€Å"growthful,† â€Å"positive,† â€Å"amazing,† â€Å"collaborative,† â€Å"talented,† â€Å"friendly,† â€Å"smart,† â€Å"brilliant,† â€Å"creative,† â€Å"innovative,† and different descriptive words that paint others †and, of course, you †in a great light. The Challenge, If You Choose to Accept It Dispensing with negative language isn't as simple as it sounds. I got myself today conversing with a supportive man at the air terminal about how unhelpful a client support individual had been on the grounds that she gave me bearings to the inn transport that didn’t help. â€Å"Wow,† I thought, â€Å"I’m dependent on complaining!† There was unmistakably no valuable reason in imparting that data to him, and now he most likely thinks I’m negative and unhelpful. I sure have much more work to do on this inspiration venture! I’m appreciative to have individuals like my customer and other people who rouse me to live and work â€Å"above the line.† They keep me legit and, well, I think they’re phenomenal and great! It is safe to say that you are prepared to begin being progressively mindful of your language so you can be seen in a positive light yourself, throughout everyday life, in business, and in your pursuit of employment? It would be ideal if you share your contemplations and stories beneath.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pollution and Plunging Male Fertility :: Pollution Environment Environmental

Contamination and Plunging Male Fertility A few dependable investigations have affirmed that fruitfulness among men has diminished because of contamination. The normal male discharge is around three milliliters. This measure of semen can contain between 20 million to 300 million sperm for each milliliter semen. To decide the rough number of sperm per milliliter of semen, experts must place a drop of semen on a slide and, while glancing through a magnifying lens, they tally the sperm inside a specific division. Men that have sperm checks underneath 20 million for each milliliter are said to have decreased richness and those whose tallies fall beneath 5 million are viewed as sterile. In 1974, C. M. Kinloch-Nelson and Raymond G. Bunge at the University of Iowa, contemplated the semen nature of men who had fathered at least two youngsters and were going to experience vasectomies. Of the 386 ripe men examined, 7% of them had sperm fixations over 100 million for every millimeter and the normal focus was 48 million. At the point when they contrasted their discoveries with comparative investigations done in the thirties, they found that sperm tallies had been diminishing for a long time. They found that among sound grown-up guys who were not being treated for fruitlessness, the normal sperm check had declined by around 40 percent, from 120 million sperm cells for each milliliter of semen to around 70 million (Big Drop 36). In 1979, a teacher at Florida State University, after breaking down understudy semen tests found shockingly low sperm tallies and alarmingly significant levels of poisonous synthetics (counting DDT and PLB's). He proposed that natural contamination may be causing the sperm decrease (Big Drop 36). The consequences of his discoveries activated investigations everywhere throughout the world, demonstrating includes in the range from 55 to 75 million and others indicating numbers well over 100 million. Men presented to significant levels of harmful synthetic concoctions at work were found to have semen containing toxins. Most researchers held to the view that adjustments in tallying procedures were liable for the revealed plunge and . . . after a couple of features, the sperm emergency turned into yesterday's news (Big Drop 36). In 1996, Niels E. Skakkebk, a Danish pediatric endocrinologist, started examining male barrenness and development issue among kids . He had been seeing various young men with balls that had not dropped and distorted privates. An examination done in 1984 analyzing 2,000 Danish school young men indicated that 7% of them had one or the two balls still inside their bodies.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Argumentative Research Essay Topics That Will Persuade Your Reader

Argumentative Research Essay Topics That Will Persuade Your ReaderIf you are looking for an argumentative research essay topic that will convince your reader that they are not as stupid as they think, then you've come to the right place. The truth is that the people who go for such topics are usually rather smart people who do their own research and can solve many of the problems that most people struggle with. This article is going to tell you what argumentative research essay topics are out there and what to expect when you write one.First, let's take a look at the long and short of this kind of topic. Arguments are usually short essays that state some points of view and makes an argument on that point. A lot of writers sometimes get hung up on explaining what they mean rather than just stating it. So, let's first look at the long form of this kind of essay.The long form of argumentative research essay topic is one where you state why you believe a certain topic is true or false. T he reason for writing the essay is either to prove or disprove something that you know is true. The thing is that most people tend to argue against something before they actually prove it. The problem with this is that you have to go through a lot of evidence and proof before you can come to a decision. But what I'm trying to say is that this kind of essay is great for getting people to really think about things and come to their own conclusions.Now the short form of this is where you state the conclusion without necessarily proving anything. The argument isn't meant to be proof but it is meant to convince your reader that they should hold the opinion you did. This also works well if you want to argue against something that you do not believe in.Two of the most common argumentative research essay topics are supporting each other and making a case for your point of view. If you can make a case for each side, you have done a good job. This means that you've given more reasons to suppo rt your arguments, which will help them stick in the reader's mind. When you start off with a support article, you will have them thinking about the subject to make sure that you're not being nitpicky.Supporting each other is a better idea than making a case for something you do not believe in. This means that you'll have to give your readers something to disagree with, so that they are not being too hard on you. You should try to get your readers to agree with you but you should also realize that you're in control of what you are saying.Writing a good essay does not need to be difficult. It only needs to be good enough to get the job done. So what is your next step?Remember that a good persuasive essay is all about strategy and how you can best convince your readers that you are right. So make sure that you choose the best argumentative research essay topics for your own benefit.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay about Intrinsic Compensation and Discretionary Benefits

Compensation and Benefit Systems Intrinsic Compensation and Discretionary Benefits Intrinsic compensation refers to ability of workers to gain pleasure from their accomplishments of their daily activities. This pleasure acts as their reward or compensation of what they have individually done. This has the effect of making the workers enjoy their tasks. On the other hand, workers sometimes receive rewards on top of their salary or wages. These rewards are not mandatory for one to receive. These kinds of additional rewards are referred to as Discretionary benefits. Strategic Analysis This refers to the act of identifying the strong points of a given business venture position, and comprehending the outward factors that have a direct†¦show more content†¦This they do so by giving the employees an incentive as a compensation for their skills gained or the quality of education they have referred to as pay-for-knowledge. Profit Sharing Plans Profit sharing plans provides the employers with various flexibilities and freedom in decision making in matters of contributions. The three profit sharing plans include: traditional profit sharing plans, age-weighted and new comparability profits sharing plans, and 401(k) plans. Traditional profit sharing is based on the salary proportions method. It helps assigning the employer contributions to all parties that took part on equal basis method. Age-weighted profit sharing plan, assign contributions with reference to age and the salary or wages of qualified employees. The older parties get a larger proportion in comparison to the younger members. On the other hand, new comparability helps employer to classify the workers on the matter of assigning contributions. 401 (k) plans is a profit sharing plan that gives the employees room for postponing various compensations with the aim of evading present taxes on their incomes. Management by Objective This refers to an action whereby, the employees and the employer commonly participate in goal identification as well as setting the desired goals, identification of standards to be used in evaluating performance, and the expected contributions. Benchmarking a job calls for identification of the job and creation of theShow MoreRelatedHr Comp Benefits684 Words   |  3 PagesGovernment? | | A. Civil Rights Act of 1991 | | | B. Equal Pay Act of 1938 | | | C. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 | | | D. Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 | | Answer Key: D | | | Question 2 of 15 | 10.0/ 10.0 Points | Which type of compensation program is based, in part, on the human capital theory? | | A. merit pay | | | B. seniority pay | | | C. incentive pay | | | D. skill-based pay | | Answer Key: B | | | Question 3 of 15 | 10.0/ 10.0 Points | What type of pay shouldRead MoreBenefits And Benefits Of Employee Benefits1726 Words   |  7 Pagesemployee benefits can help motivate individuals to labor more productively. Improving employee workplace behavior is a challenging task that most companies face when attempting to create a positive work environment, which will increase performance and positive behavior within the organization. By integrating employee benefits, employers will receives increased levels of motivation and drive from staff to achieve business objectives. Employee benefits are nonmonetary rewards known as discretionary benefitsRead MoreEmployee Motivation For An Organization1646 Words   |  7 Pagesorganisations and employers wish to maximise employees’ effort on its work and therefore enhance organisational performance. According to Armstrong (2012:50), high-performance is accomplished by well-motivated people who are prepared to exercise discretionary effort. Therefore, it is critical for the organisation to find a pathway to motivate its employees. Some scholars state that employee motivation can be encouraged by offering appropriate rewards and establish systematic reward systems (AmstrongRead MorePlan Management1335 Words   |  6 Pagesorganization structure that leads to an employment deal for competencies, demographics, and values. With that employment deal it leads to a total reward strategy with pay, benefit, learning and development, and a good work environment. The basic salaries of the project team members wi ll not be changed. However, special compensation will be given for their overtime and travels related to the project. After the project is completed, all team members will be evaluated and those who will receive satisfactoryRead MoreManaging Editor, By Distributing Human Resources, Process Of Planning, Recruiting, Selecting, And Training7066 Words   |  29 Pagesinformal discussions and recommendations during the initial assessment. From there, the candidates’ substantive assessments included job knowledge tests, performance appraisals, and promotability ratings. Then, the finalists received job offers after discretionary assessments. The external selection process started with applicants, who passed onto the next stage, becoming candidates, after the initial assessments evaluated which applicants met the minimum qualifications and predicted the best performersRead MoreAnalysis Of George Elton Mayo And His Work Essay5478 Words   |  22 Pagessatisfaction includes energy, enthusiasm and positive affect (Penna, 2007; Macey and Schneider, 2008). However, job satisfaction differs from engagement in that job satisfaction is a response to the overall employment exchange (including compensation and benefits) and does not reflect a long term affect (Fernandez, 2007). Satisfaction is considered a lower threshold than engagement as employees can be satisfied with a job due to different reasons (pay, logistics, etc.) but that does not guaranteeRead MoreArticle Review - Achieving Organisational Prosperity Through Employee Motivation and Retention: a Comparative Study of Strategic Hrm Practices in Malaysian Institutions26 94 Words   |  11 Pagesthe role behaviours of employees. The fifth part touches on discussion of the research findings before the conclusion in the final part. All subjects were compared on six core HR practices, namely recruitment and selection, salary and compensation, fringe benefits, training and development, performance appraisal and promotion and career advancement. Both the American and European MNCs were very careful in recruiting new employee. Their HR managers work closely with line department managers in settingRead More Incentive Pay, Employee Performance and Employee Productivity3079 Words   |  13 Pagesflexible incentive pay programs. Careful design of incentive pays program and rules of administration are crucial to the effective management of an organization. Incentive Pay and Purpose of Incentive Pay System Incentive pay is a form of direct compensation where employers pay for performance beyond the normal expectations to motivate employees to perform at higher levels. (, 2001-2014). Employers are practicing the incentive pay systems to promote employees particular behavior andRead MoreEmployee Engagement1948 Words   |  8 Pagescustomer satisfaction and employee loyalty. These employees will record reduced sick days and absenteeism and have increased operational performances leading to the organization’s higher profit growth. When employees care and are engaged, they use discretionary effort. An example is when an IT technician will stay in late without being asked or an accountant filling in for front office personnel when they step out. Engagement is often headed by top rank leaders. An organization with aggressive leadersRead MoreCompensating Sales Force6663 Words   |  27 PagesCOMPENSATING SALES FORCE Sales is one of the few jobs where you earn your money – every day. COMPENSATION IS MORE THAN MONEY Any type of sales organization can reward sales performance in three fundamental and interrelated ways: 1. Direct financial rewards. 2. Career advancement and personal development opportunities. 3. Nonfinancial compensation. Why is it important? †¢ Sales activities are the life blood of most business †¢ Most misunderstood aspects of running a business †¢ Tricky

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Abortion Should Remain Legal Essay - 671 Words

A woman is walking through a dark alley. She has a bag full of cash that she scraped together and is going to see a man who will probably rip her off. This woman is not what you think, she is receiving an illegal abortion by an untrained surgeon. Many have said that abortion is a crime against humanity, taking away the innocent lives of unborn children. Though, the real crime would be to rob women of their rights and well-being. Abortions should stay legal because the absence of legal abortions will mean rise in dangerous illegal abortions, abortions are a woman’s right, and motherhood has a negative effect on women who aren’t ready. If abortions are banned, it will only provoke illegal abortions, which are particularly hazardous to†¦show more content†¦Men can undergo any procedure they want without controversy, the same should be applicable to women. All humans should receive equal rights. Many have argued fetuses should receive these rights as well, but embr yos are only a clump of cells and comparing it to an infant would be absurd (Peikoff). â€Å"We must not confuse potentiality with actuality. An embryo is a potential human being.†(Peikoff). Fetuses are potential humans which, if the woman chooses, can be developed. Therefore once again, the women should have a legal alternative. Even if the mother chooses to keep the child, it might not be the right time in other aspects. There are many things to consider before planning for a baby. The women should be physically, emotionally, financially, and mentally ready for a child. It has been proven that babies born into a safe environment are healthier in general (Arthur). It would be irresponsible to raise a baby into a hectic environment. Some women are just not ready for babies (Arthur).Most women do not have the support of their loved ones when having an unplanned pregnancy. Without considering these factors, having a baby will ruin not only the women’s future but the futu re of her baby as well. Pregnancy is a consequence of unprotected sex, but motherhood should not be a punishment. Motherhood can be wonderful only if it comes at the right time, but if it isn’t, it would be better off for the baby and the mother to abort.Show MoreRelatedAbortions Should Remain Legal Essay1424 Words   |  6 Pages Abortion has been preformed for over thousands of years. It was first started for the fear among the â€Å"native† Anglo-Saxon women. They believed that the population would be dominated by the children of the incoming immigrants, who had higher birth rates at the time. In the mid-to-late 1800s, states began legalizing abortion but antiseptics were unfamiliar, hospitals were not common, and doctors did not have the knowledge to understand abortion. As years went on, the scientific method began to takeRead MoreAbortion in Canada Should Remain Legal1798 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Abortion is not a crime in Canada but it is an area of the law† (Duhaime, 2010) that isn’t black and white. It has been completely legal since 1988 and our government should keep it that way. For as much as some people are anti-abortion or ‘pro-life’ they need to understand that women have abortions for a variety of reasons one being that an abortion can actually benefit the unborn child. Those who are anti-choice also claim that abortion is wrong because it violates the rights of the fetus, butRead More Should Abortion Remain Legal? Essay1487 Words   |  6 Pagesconstitutional right to an abortion during the first six months of pregnancy. Before the Court’s ruling, a majority of states prohibited abortion, although most allowed an exception when pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. The Court overturned these state prohibitions in Roe v. Wade. The Court ruled that states could restrict abortions only during the final three months of pregnancy, a stage when medical experts considered the fetus capable of â€Å"meaningful life† outside the womb. The abortion debate has becomeRead MoreShould Abortion Remain Legal? The United States?1342 Words   |  6 Pages 22 October 2015 Should Abortion Remain Legal in the United States? Approximately 57 million unborn children have been affected by the Supreme Court’s decision to legalize abortion since the Roe vs. Wade court case according to a study conducted by the Director of Education and Research at the National Right to Life Educational Trust Fund, Dr. Randall K. O’Bannon. If abortion remains legalized in the United States, it will only continue to contribute to the dangers of abortion that women are facedRead MoreEssay about Abortion Should Remain Legal1943 Words   |  8 PagesAbortion, one of the most controversial ongoing issues, has become common in the United States. There are a lot of reasons defending the legalization of abortion. However, understanding the medical information and perspectives on abortion can solve this controversial issue. Unlike the common knowledge that abortion is performed in an unsafe setting and has the potential long-term complications, abortion is actually performed by professions and has few complications if it is performed within twelveRead MoreEssay On Abortion917 Words   |  4 Pageswomen in the United States today. Abortion is defined as the process of terminating a pregnancy through medical practice; this procedure became legal in 1973. Over the years, overly restrictive laws have been placed on the act of abortion by the pro-life movement, and now more than ever, the government is working to ban abortion altogether; for now, however, it is still legal in the majority of states in the United States, including Iowa. Abortion should remain legal in the United States for many reasonsRead MoreKeeping Abortion Legal1032 Words   |  4 Pagescause a therapeutic abortion, so Ann was subjected to horrid treatment including throwing her against walls and choking her. When Ann left her boyfriend, she was not allowed to get an abortion, and her baby was born with extreme brain damage. She says â€Å"A simple legal abortion would have spared me so much anguish, so much torment and sufferin g†¦ What was gained by laws that kept me pregnant against my will? Nothing, except the rapist got away with his crime†(Ann’s Story 1). Abortion is a highly debatedRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion1598 Words   |  7 PagesNot every abortion story can be this tragic, but then again, it should not have to be. Women do not need valid reasons to decide what they think would be best for their future; it is ultimately their decision. What if abortion was illegal? Many women, who are determined to terminate their pregnancy, will find a way; whether it be an unsafe intake of pills, or a dangerous and expensive back-alley abortion. Numerous people beleive it to be immoral, murderous, dangerous, pointless, and should only beRead MoreAbortion is Every Womans Right Essay976 Words   |  4 Pagesand women believe that abortion should be illegal in America, rather than the 42% that believe that it is appropriate for abortion to remain legal (Poll: Majority of Americans Ar e Pro-Life for the First Time). Those that are pro-life believe that a child is born into this world with a purpose, and if a pregnancy results in an abortion, god’s plan for the child in this world will be disrupted (D‘Silva). A fetus has a heartbeat 21 days after being conceived, so anti- abortion protesters believe abortingRead MoreAdoption, NOT Abortion Essay934 Words   |  4 PagesNowadays, abortion has become a controversial issue because people are becoming more aware of the issue that abortion brings to society and the individual who is going through the abortion .In recent years, however, society has become very open-minded, and as a result pro-life and pro-choice groups have been able to sway the American public’s view of abortion. Abortion became legal in 1973 when Roe vs. Wade declared that a woman has the right to choose if she wishes to continue with her pregnancy

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rape And Burglary As A Post Incarceration Supervision

and burglary as strikes for purposes of imposing a life sentence without parole (Sutton, 2013). Mandatory minimums take away the discretion of the judge in sentencing. These officials are bound by statute to place offenders behind bars. Because these statutes are put into place, the judge is not allowed to hand down alternative punishments, nor do they give them the opportunity to prescribe treatment or a change to rehabilitate. Such laws also hold racial discriminatory factors (USSC, 2011). Determinate sentences are those in which the offender is given a fixed term that might be reduced based on good behavior or earned time. There is usually underlying expectations on the amount of punishment and a set release date with no review by†¦show more content†¦Sentencing guidelines are a mechanism used to apply determinate sentencing. They are a set of standards that are put in place to establish rational and consistent sentencing methods. These are set for cases that were tried because of racial disparities and biases in the courts. They are set in particular jurisdictions. These guidelines were put in place to limit the discretion of the judicial system and limit the disparities that are present in the courts as well as to promote more rational and informed sentencing policies. In addition, these guidelines are a system of recommended sentences that are based upon offender and offence characteristics. Offense characteristics are rules that set the standards for the seriousness of the offense in most sentence guidelines. This classification is typically based on how the crime is seen by legislatures. It is not determined on how the offender committed a certain crime. For example, theft that occurred on an unoccupied building would be categorized as less serious than assault with a weapon. The characteristics of an offender are things that are unique to the individual. These could be things such as the number and type of past offenses whether they are felonies, misdemeanors, or juvenile delinquencies. In other instances, they can be whether an offender was under a custody status at the time of the offense (Frase Mitchell, 2016). The characteristics of both of these entities are then placed on a

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Process of Canonization free essay sample

The canonization process has existed in Catholic religion for centuries. This process is steeped with history, as well as tradition, and rewards people for their unwavering commitment and faith to Catholicism. The process is long, arduous, expensive, and eventually requires authorization from the highest of Catholic officials. This paper will review the history, requirements, and financial expenses involved in the process of canonization into sainthood. History Saints are human, like us, but they personify divine power and have privileged contact with the supernatural. Saints perform miracles, receive visions, and are in love with the spirit. They truly are â€Å"the chosen few† (Dunn-Mascetti, 1994). As Catholics we refer to saints as people who are extremely holy; living their lives as perfect Christians, thus allowing them the right to serve God, on a personal level, in heaven (Schreck, 2004). Canonization is the process in which the pope declares a deceased constituent of the faithful is projected as a model and intercessor to the Christian principles and recognized as a saint due to living their life in a heroic manner or becoming a martyr because of their continued faith to God (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). This persons name is then inducted into the canon of saints, citing those who are to be given veneration universally into the church. Canonization is an earthly decision, meaning it honors them as a saint on earth, not their entry into heaven (Bunson, M. , Bunson S. Bunson, M. , 1998). According to Molinari O’Donnell (2000), canonization originated during the early formulation of the Christian doctrines of worship, invocation, and intercession. The faithful believed that martyrs were true Christians and saints because they made the supreme sacrifice, by giving their lives, for God, the Gospel, and the good of the church. Their suffering earned them eternal life. Toward the end of the great Roman persecutions, the veneration of martyrs was extended to confessors, those who defended and suffered for their faith, but did not die doing so. Those confessors who had been excellent Christians, in austerity and penance, were now eligible to be rewarded with sainthood (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). â€Å"The first formal canonization came in year 993, when Pope John XV raised Ulric of Augsburg to the altars during a synod at the Lateran Basilica†. As you will see, the qualifications for canonization in the later years became more stringent after previous inductees were found to be of imperfect sanctity (Bunson et al, 1998, p. 17). Requirements The process for canonization is divided into two phases; diocesan and Roman, or apostolic. When a person dies, and it is determined they lived a perfect and holy Christian life, a formal process for canonization is initiated. In the diocesan phase, the investigation is guided by the procedural law of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, by the diocesan bishop who formally conducts the process where the candidate died. A cause defined as â€Å"recent† is one where the person’s eligibility for sainthood can be corroborated through the disposition of eye-witnesses, and can only begin after a five years following the death of the candidate. A cause defined as â€Å"ancient† is where the evidence of virtues or martyrdom can be gathered only from written sources, subsequently, there is no time limit for this cause (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). The postulator, a person approved by the bishop and responsible for the presentation of evidence for authenticity, also agrees to bear the moral and financial expense of the cause. Their primary job is to supervise the investigation and to determine the candidate’s fitness for canonization, by researching their life, work, and holiness. After the diocesan phase is complete, the postulator will reside in Rome where he will develop the formal argument for canonization with the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, which is comprised of cardinals and bishops. During this time, the postulator will create a Positio, a book containing an account of the candidate’s life and virtue (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). In the diocesan phase, information, both positive and negative, on the candidate’s life, work, and holiness are collected and documented to establish the validity for the petition to canonize. In order for the nominee to advance to the next step, their published writings will be submitted for approval to two theological censors, selected by the bishop, and will be graded on doctrine and moral teachings. Other writings from the candidate will then presented to a historical commission, also selected by the bishop, which will conclude this particular phase. Evidence must clearly show that the candidate lived a life of faith, hope and charity beyond that of a common Christian (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). The Roman, or postolic, phase commences when the acts of the diocesan process have been turned over to the Congregation for the causes of Saints, and they have declared the cause as â€Å"valid†. At this point a â€Å"relator†, an official of the Congregation, will be appointed and will assist in the creation of the Positio. Another official of the Congregation, known as the â€Å"promoter of faith†, will be accountable for the assessment of the cau se by historical and theological consultants to whom the Positio may be submitted for their endorsement. At last, all of this information is submitted to the Congregation for the causes of Saints, who will then forward it to the pope upon their endorsement. If the pope determines the candidate as suitable for canonization, a Bull of Canonization is issued, infallibly affirming the candidate’s perfection of the saint’s life and distinguishing their role as a divine intercessor; thus becoming a saint (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). Even through the long, demanding process involving in-depth research, historical study, and theological manifestation, the decision to canonize lies solely with the pope, and requires a confirmation from God in the way of two miracles, which is scrutinized heavily by the Congregation. Miracles are a product of divine intervention and reinforce the candidate’s holiness as a servant of God. Martyrs are exempt from this miracle requirement because the act of sacrificing one’s life is viewed as the perfection of charity; they need not prove their worthiness in miracles (Molinari O’Donnell, 2000). Financial Expense The tremendously long hours of interviews, research, travel, and other intangibles make the canonization process an exhaustive event. The thoroughness of the process comes at a steep price. After sainthood is declared, the expenses include paintings representing the new saint which is given to the pope, cardinals, and other officials of the Congregation for the causes of Saints. Other expenses include decorations of the Basilica, Pontifical Mass, Sacred Vestments, and incidental expenses that make for a sizeable bill to the postulator of the cause. For example the final expenses for the canonization by Saint Leo XIII of Saint Anthony Maria Zaccaria and Saint Peter Fourier came to the total of 221,849. 10 Italian lira. When we convert that to the U. S. dollar, the total becomes $42,816. 87 (Beccari, 1907). Conclusion Canonization has long been a tradition in Catholicism that goes all the way back to year 993. The process is a thorough procedure that involves intensive investigation of a nominee and standard they maintained in their Christian and personal life. The requirements are tightly scrutinized, and for good reason, due to the nature of the appointment to saint. A saint is in personal contact with God in heaven; we worship and pray to them. We rely, trust, and place our faith in the pope and Congregation to make the right decision, to allow only the most deserving and most holy to be rewarded with the highest honor the church can bestow upon a human being. The cost is great, but the return on the investment is heavenly.